2018-04-12 13:54   参考消息网  

How You're Tracked Online - and

What You Can Do About It


Though Facebook gets the attention because of a recent privacy gaffe, the social network is far from alone in collecting massive amounts of data on you to help marketers sell you stuff.

Here are some of the ways to block or minimize such tracking — but they come with trade-offs.

TRACKING IDs Websites have long used unique IDs in “cookies” — data files stored in your browser — to know it's you when you return a week later. Cookies also let advertising networks run by the likes of Facebook and Google connect you as you visit multiple websites. Phones and tablets have a device advertising ID that apps can use to track you.

Combatting this: You can reset the cookie ID by clearing cookies periodically. Most browsers also have a private mode to limit tracking through cookies,though it's not foolproof. Companies can still link you if you've signed in, for instance. As for the device ID, you can reset that or tell advertisers not to target ads through the phone's settings.

The trade-offs: You'll still get ads, just not targeted ones. And clearing cookies makes your browser forget who you are, so you'll have to sign back into any site that was saving your login.

LOCATION SERVICES Many apps need your location to work. Mapping apps, for instance, can't tell you when to turn without knowing where you are. Video services typically have rights only in certain countries and need to verify your location. But location can be used for much more.

Combatting this: You can turn off location services in the phone's settings, though for apps to work properly, it's better to turn them off for specific services that don't really need them.

The trade-offs: Some apps won't work without your location. Others, such as weather apps, will require you enter your location manually. And you might miss out on recommendations such as better commuting routes via apps like Waze.

SIGNING IN Signing into an online account gives services a sure-fire way of tracking you. Facebook won't work at all without an account; Google merely works better with one. And you'll generally need an account with any service that charges you, although sometimes you can sign in with your Facebook or Google ID instead.

Combatting this: Resist creating an account or signing whenever you can — such as when you're merely browsing rather than buying. Avoid using Facebook or Google IDs whenever possible, as those companies could then track you. You can also use a different email address for each account to frustrate efforts to connect you across services, although it can be a major pain.

The trade-offs: Some services require signing in,and creating accounts on each service means more passwords to remember (though you might consider using a password manager). Whatever you do,don't reuse the same passwords across service; that makes them easy to hack.

IP ADDRESS The Internet Protocol address lists where your phone or computer lives on the internet; it's how you get messages and load websites. But IP addresses can also help companies remember who you are and link the various devices you use, since most homes use a single IP address for the whole network. Databases can also map IP addresses to physical locations.

Combatting this: You can mask your IP address by using a secure intermediary. VPN services, com-mon in corporate settings, will route your traffic through a separate IP address; a secure web browser called Tor automatically sends traffic through multiple third parties. You still need to avoid signing in.

The trade-offs: Tor can slow down performance,particularly with high-data tasks such as video. And with VPNs, you need to trust the VPN operator, whether that's your boss or a private service.



跟踪ID 网站早就开始利用“cookie”——储存在你浏览器中的数据文件——中的唯一ID在你一周后回来时认出你。Cookie还使脸书和谷歌之类公司经营的广告网络能够在你访问多个网站时连接上你。手机和平板电脑都有一个设备广告ID,应用程序可用它来跟踪你。



定位服务 许多应用程序需要获知你的位置才能运行。例如,地图软件如果不知道你在哪里就无法告诉你何时转弯。视频服务往往只在某些国家有版权,因此需要核实你的位置。但定位能被用来做远远更多的事情。



登录 登录网上账户使服务商肯定能跟踪到你。脸书网站没有账户就完全无法使用,谷歌则只是有账户的话更好用。通常情况下,使用任何收费服务都需要账户,虽然有时你可以用脸书或谷歌ID登录。



IP地址 互联网协议(IP)地址记录着你的手机或计算机在互联网上的位置;你正是借此收取讯息、加载网页的。但IP地址也可以帮助公司记住你是谁并将你使用的各种设备联系到一起,因为大多数家庭在整个网络中使用仅仅一个IP地址。数据库还能将IP地址与地理位置对应起来。