【媒库文选】沉浸式水族馆设计的秘诀

2018-07-11 13:56   参考消息网  

The Secrets Behind Immersive Aquarium Design

沉浸式水族馆设计的秘诀

Oscar Holland 奥斯卡·霍兰

At the Tennessee Aquarium, visitors pass through a series of changing ecosystems inhabited by river otters,salamanders and brightly colored sunfish. The experience has been specifically designed to replicate the route taken by the neighboring Tennessee River, which flows from the Appalachian Mountains down to the Gulf of Mexico.

The attraction, located in Chattanooga, was once the world's largest freshwater aquarium, though it now pales in comparison to the gargantuan oceanariums of China and the Middle East.

But the secret to good aquarium design is not all about size - it's about telling a story, according to one of the architects behind the project.

“The Tennessee Aquarium is really the story of the Tennessee River,” said Peter Sollogub, associate principal at the architecture firm Cambridge Seven, in a phone interview.

“We look for stories that can take a collection of animals and orchestrate them into a larger experience. It's like a film, a piece of music or a book - you progress through it and, when you leave, you feel as if you've gone on a comprehensible journey.”

Having started out working on the New England Aquarium in the 1960s, Sollogub is a veteran in the aquarium world. He has since helped create public facilities across the US, as well as in Italy, Portugal and Japan.

The first priority is always, he said, the fish themselves. But when it comes to visitors' experiences,the design process revolves around how - and where -people encounter them. Most aquariums are built in a “linear” way, meaning that visitors rarely deviate from a set path.

“Take the splendor of jellyfish or the wonder of penguins - things that are spectacular unto themselves,” Sollogub said. “What we try to do is enhance them by developing encounters in which you pass through them, or see them swimming over and under you, or at different levels.”

For architect James Hampton, a crucial element of design is what he calls the "wow factor." This seems like an apt way to describe the walk-through tunnel at Dubai Mall's 2.6-million-gallon aquarium - a project Hampton was involved in - a 157-foot-long passage with 270-degree views of fish in the surrounding water.

Creating naturalistic environments, whether through rocks or artificial coral, is central to the art of aquarium design. Keeping out sunlight is also a priority,as it can produce algae and unwanted reflections. These considerations not only provide marine life with more realistic habitats, but they encourage people to enter an all-important state of suspended disbelief.

Since the first so-called “shark tunnel” was built in Auckland, New Zealand, in 1985, walk-throughs and large viewing screens have become an industry standard.

“With the ‘old-style’ aquariums, visitors would pay their 10 dollars, have an hour or so looking through these‘picture frames’ at the exhibits, and then they'd walk out,” Hampton said. “Generally, they've had a good experience, but now it's much more immersive.”

“When you walk into a cinema, you want to be wowed by the big screen and intense color right there in your face - and that's what we try and do, with as much acrylic as possible, so you really feel the environment that you're in.”

Both Hampton and Sollogub see these tools as a means to an end. The ultimate goal is to create an emotional connection between humankind and nature. This in turn, Sollogub said, informs the educative approach that underpins aquarium design.

“The greatest part of working on aquariums is bringing guests to places they have never encountered before,” he said. “They were as wide-eyed as you can imagine, and that's really what it's all about.”

“I think aquariums are education at its purest. You're not telling people what to think, you're allowing them to feel it and experience it - to become part of it.”

在田纳西水族馆,游客们穿过了一个又一个不断变换的生态系统,里面栖息着河獭、蝾螈和艳丽的太阳鱼。这种体验经过了专门设计,为的是复制毗邻的田纳西河所流经的路线,从阿巴拉契亚山脉南下到墨西哥湾。

位于查塔努加的该景点曾经是世界上最大的淡水水族馆,但现在与中国和中东的巨型海洋馆相比显得黯然失色。

不过,按照该水族馆的一位设计师的说法,好的水族馆设计秘诀不完全在于大小,而在于讲故事。

建筑公司剑桥七合伙人公司的副合伙人彼得·索洛古布在接受电话采访时说:“田纳西水族馆其实讲述的就是田纳西河的故事。”

他说:“我们寻找那些可以汇集各种动物并把它们安插到一个更宏大的体验中的故事。水族馆就像一部电影、一段音乐或一本书——让你心随景动。等你离开时,你感觉仿佛经历了一段明明白白的旅程。”

上世纪60年代就开始设计新英格兰水族馆的索洛古布是水族馆界的行家里手。自那以来,他在美国各地以及意大利、葡萄牙和日本帮助建造了一些公共设施。

他说,首要重点自始至终都是鱼。但在游客体验方面,设计过程要围绕游客如何——以及在哪里——邂逅鱼类。大多数水族馆的建造采取“线性”方式,即游客很少偏离既定的游览路线。

索洛古布说:“就拿水母美景或者企鹅奇观来说——这些本身来说就非常壮观。我们尝试做的是通过安排邂逅来增强这种体验,或与它们擦身而过,或看到它们在你的上方和下方或不同高度游动。”

在设计师詹姆斯·汉普顿看来,设计中的一个关键要素就是他所说的“惊叹系数”。这似乎是一种恰当方法,用以描述迪拜购物中心内260万加仑容积水族馆观光廊——它是汉普顿曾参与的一个项目,在157英尺长的步道上,游客拥有270度的视角来观看周围水域里的鱼类。

无论是通过岩石还是人工珊瑚,创造模仿自然的环境是水族馆设计艺术的核心。隔绝阳光也是一个重点,因为阳光能产生藻类和多余的反射。这些考虑因素不仅为海洋生物提供了更符合现实的栖息地,还鼓励人们进入一种非常重要的“宁信其真”状态。

自1985年新西兰奥克兰建成首个所谓的“鲨鱼隧道”以来,观光廊和大型观景屏已成为行业标准。

汉普顿说:“就‘老式’水族馆来说,游客们会花上10美元,用一个小时左右的时间透过‘画框’看展品,然后就会离开。总的来说,他们有不错的体验,但现在的体验更身临其境了。”

“当你走进电影院的时候,你希望被面前的大屏幕和强烈的颜色所震撼——这就是我们尝试和去做的,有了尽可能多的丙烯酸,你就能真正感受到你所处的环境了。”

汉普顿和索洛古布都认为这些工具是达到目的的手段。最终的目标是建立人类与自然的情感联系。索洛古布说,这反过来又影响到支撑着水族馆设计的教育之道。

他说:“设计水族馆的最了不起之处是把客人带到他们以前从未接触过的地方。他们目瞪口呆,这就是设计的全部意义。”

他说:“我认为水族馆是最纯粹的教育。你不是在告诉人们该思考什么,你是让他们去感受,去体验——去成为其中的一部分。”(涂颀译自美国有线电视新闻网网站6月22日文章)

广告

扫码看更多外媒资讯